13.14.5. Repair of insignificant damages of a body
For the publication of more detailed information on works on repair of a body address the special "Repair manual of a body of the car".
Repair of insignificant scratches of a body
If scratch is superficial and does not reach panel metal, the recovery procedure is very simple. Slightly rub the damaged area with a reducer of paint or very thin pritirochny paste for removal of the exfoliated particles of paint and removal from a surrounding surface of a protective wax layer. Rinse the processed surface clear water.
Apply with a thin brush on scratch a layer of external automobile paint; you apply paint with thin layers until the surface of paint in scratch does not appear level with with a layer of the intact paint surrounding scratch. Let's fresh paint harden within not less than two weeks, then it is greatest possible disguise transition from again painted surface to old paint by rubbing by its reducer of paint or very thin pritirochny paste. In conclusion put a protective wax covering.
If scratch reached body metal that can be the reason of corrosion of its metal, the recovery procedure will differ from given above. Remove with a penknife from a scratch bottom free particles of a rust, then for prevention further of emergence of corrosion cover scratch with rust inhibitor. By means of the nylon or rubber applicator fill a scratch cavity with spackling paste. If necessary for thinning of paste when filling narrow scratches mix it with cellulose solvent. Before paste will stiffen, moisten the finger which is wrapped up by soft cotton fabric in cellulose solvent, and the bystry movement smooth down the puttied scratch surface; it will provide easy concavity of the processed surface. Now scratch can be painted over as it was described above in this Section.
Repair of the deformed surfaces
Deep dents first of all are extended before giving of a form to them, as close as possible to initial. The complete recovery of a form is impossible since metal of the damaged panel stretches under the influence of shock loading. Giving to the deformed surface of level about 3 mm lower than the level of the surrounding not deformed part of a body is optimum. In case of absolutely superficial dent it does not make sense to try to extend the panel at all. In the presence of access to inside of the deformed site restoration of a form can be carried out by percussion of a dent by the hammer with wooden or plastic brisk. At percussion, for damping of blows of the hammer and prevention of a flexure by that more extensive, than it is required, the site of the panel, densely press to the damaged site outside of the suitable size wooden whetstone which will absorb blows of the hammer and thus not to allow emergence of "paunch" on the big areas of a body.
In that case when deformation of the site of the body having double structure takes place or if access to inner side of a dent is absent for other reason, it is necessary to use other equipment of a pulling. Nasverlite in the deformed area, in particular in its deepest part, a series of small openings. Then screw in long self-tapping screws in openings so that they were reliably recorded in metal. Now the panel can get into condition by a dent pulling, taking flat-nose pliers the acting heads of self-tapping screws.
The following step is removal of paint from the damaged area and on 2.5 cm around it. The easiest to perform this procedure by means of the wire or abrasive nozzle fixed in an electric drill cartridge though it is possible to make it manually an emery paper not less effectively. A final procedure for preparation for a shpaklevaniye is the zatsarapyvaniye of a naked metal surface the screw-driver or a shaft of a file, or as an alternative, a nasverlivaniye in the damaged area of a series of small openings. It will provide the best gearing of hard putty with metal.
For completion of repair address the Section on spackling works and coloring.
Restoration of the holes formed as a result of corrosion, and holes
Remove all paint from the damaged site and on 2.5 cm around it, manually or by means of nozzles on the electric drill. After that it is possible to define a damage rate or corrosion and to decide whether it makes sense to make repair or it is more reasonable to replace the panel entirely (if it is possible). New panels are not so expensive as many think, both often quicker and more effectively to replace the panel, than to restore the huge rusted sites of a body.
Remove from the damaged panel all details of finishing, except those that can serve as templates for restoration of an initial form of the panel (such as cases of forward headlights etc.). Then, by means of scissors for cutting of a tin or a hacksaw cloth, remove everything strongly damaged by corrosion and loose pieces of metal of the panel. For creation of the easy deepening necessary for a shpaklevaniye, bend edges of an opening inside.
Remove a powdery rust from the surface of the remained metal. Process the struck area rust inhibitor; process also back surface if to it there is an access.
Before starting a shpaklevaniye, it is necessary to partition off an opening somehow. It can be made by means of an aluminum or plastic grid or an aluminum tape. For a peregorazhivaniye of big openings it is the best of all to use an aluminum or plastic grid, or a mat from fiber glass. Cut off the piece of a grid approximately suitable by the size and a form, then impose it on an opening so that its edges were lower than the level of the surrounding intact surface of the panel of a body. The grid can be recorded on the place by means of several lumps of hard putty located on its perimeter.
The aluminum tape is applied to a peregorazhivaniye of small or very narrow openings. Wind off a piece of a tape of the necessary length from the reel, give it scissors approximately required form, then remove the paper sticker protecting a sticky layer (if that is available), and paste a tape on an opening, having partitioned off it. If width of one piece of a tape is not enough, it is possible to impose several pieces with overlapping. Carefully smooth down edges of a tape the screw-driver handle, having provided its reliable sticking to inner side of the metal surrounding an opening.
Repair of a body - a shpaklevaniye and coloring
Before to start performing procedures of this Subsection, study information of previous.
The set of hard putties of various type is produced, however the patent sets consisting of a can with hard putty and a tube with a hardener best of all are suitable for this type of works. For ensuring smooth overlaying of paste with observance of the required contour it is necessary to use the wide flexible plastic or nylon applicator.
On a pure piece of a cardboard or plywood mix a small amount of hard putty. Carefully dose ingredients, observing instructions of the manufacturer on packing since addition of the wrong quantity of a hardener can be the reason of too bystry or too slow hardening of mix. By means of the applicator apply the prepared hard putty on the surface prepared for a shpaklevaniye; for giving of a surface of the necessary level and a contour carry out by the applicator across it. On reaching the confidant to original a contour of the processed surface stop putting hard putty since at excessive hobby it can become "sticky" and begin to stick to the applicator. Continue to apply thin films of hard putty with intervals 20 minutes until the puttied surface does not begin to act slightly over the intact area of the panel.
After hardening excess of hard putty can be removed with a metal level or a file. Further the puttied surface should be processed a waterproof emery paper gradually утончающихся grades, since No. 40 and finishing No. 400. For giving to the processed surface of the absolute plane always wrap paper around flat rubber, pith or wooden whetstone. In processing constantly moisten waterproof paper with water. It will provide absolute smoothness of a surface at a final stage of grinding.
After end of this stage of works the processed surface has to be surrounded with a ring of naked metal which, in turn, has to be led round by the nullified edge of good paint. Rinse the processed surface with clear water, having removed from it all dust formed as a result of grinding.
Spray on all surface of processing by a thin layer light primer - it will help to reveal all defects of processing visually. Liquidate all allowed flaws, having covered them with fresh hard putty, and again carry out processing of a surface by an emery paper. Repeat this procedure until you achieve the result satisfying you. Rinse finally processed surface with clear water and let's it dry completely.
Now the surface is ready to coloring. Work with аэрозолью has to be performed in the warm, dry, windless and easy atmosphere. These conditions to observe the easiest during the work in the volume enclosed space, but if all of you are forced to work in the open air, need to be chosen carefully day of carrying out painting. During the work moisten the working platform with water indoors to beat the dust which is available in air. If coloring of the separate panel of a body is made, cover the panels surrounding it; it will help to minimize effect of easy difference of tones between old and new paints. Also it is necessary to cover details of finishing of a body (the chromeplated slips, door handles, etc.). For a prikryvaniye use an adhesive tape and newspapers laid in several layers.
Before coloring carefully stir up an aerosol barrel, then test it on a trial surface, trying to obtain the necessary level of skill. Cover the surface of processing with a thick layer of primer, reaching thickness drawing several thin layers, but not one thick. A waterproof emery paper No. 400 process a surface to ideal smoothness. In processing periodically moisten a surface and waterproof paper with water. In conclusion once again rinse a surface with clear water and let's it dry completely before putting paint.
Put the top paint coat, again trying to obtain thickness by consecutive drawing several thin layers. Begin coloring from the center of the restored surface and the circular movements move to the periphery until it is painted all surface and about 5 more cm of surrounding old paint. In 10 - 15 minutes after drawing the last paint coat remove the covering material from the next panels and elements of finishing.
Let's paint dry out not less than two weeks, then by means of a reducer of paint or very thin pritirochny paste it is greatest possible disguise transition from again painted surface to old paint. In conclusion put a protective wax covering.
Because producers of cars in increasing frequency use plastic elements of a body (such as bumpers, spoilers and in certain cases even large panels of a body), correction of more serious damages of these elements comes down or to its assignment on experts in this area, or to full replacement of elements. Repair of similar damages by the owner of the car is almost impracticable in view of the considerable cost of the equipment and materials necessary for its performance. Making in plasticity along the line of a crack of a flute by means of a grinding nozzle on the electric drill is the basis for technology of repair. After that the burst detail cooks by means of the gun with hot air which melts the rod of a plastic filler enclosed in a flute. Then excess of plastic is removed and the surface is ground to smoothness. It is important that the rod of a plastic filler was picked up correctly since components of a body can be made of different grades of plastic (polycarbonate, ABS, polypropylene, etc.)
Less serious damages (teases, grazes, insignificant cracks, etc.) can be liquidated by the owner of the car with use of two-component epoxy hard putty. Mixed in equal proportions, it is applied also, as well as hard putty for metal surfaces. There is she usually in 20 - 30 minutes, ready to grinding and coloring.
If the owner completely replaces an element independently, or restores it by means of epoxy hard putty, it faces a problem of search of the suitable paint compatible to that grade of plastic of which the detail is made. At one time use of universal paint for plastic components was impossible because of a variety of grades of the applied plastic. Standard paints in general badly connect to plastic or rubber surfaces. Now, however, there were sets for finishing of plastic details of a body which include primer for preliminary processing, secondary primer and the top decorative paint. Sets usually are followed by the exhaustive instruction, but in general the technology consists that at first preliminary primer which has to dry within not less than 30 minutes is applied. Then secondary primer is applied, and after its drying within an hour the layer of the external paint which is specially picked up for color is put. As a result you receive correctly painted component on which paint will be rather plastic to be bent together with plastic or rubber that does not happen to standard paint.